Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student- Section 5
SHORT ACHIEVABLE GOALS
DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
Direct Object Pronouns
Indirect Object Pronouns
Irregular Tu Form Commands
Days of the Week
Months of the Year
INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
A direct object receives the action of the verb.
||las, les, los
(problem here--this is more sophisticated than my current
|to him, her, it
|to you (plural)
If your sentence has both a direct object and an indirect
object, the the indirect object comes before the direct object.
Juan Marco tiene el lápiz, pero no me
John Mark has the pencil, but he won't give it to me.\
An indirect object is used for the person to whom
something is told, given, or sent.
Why are indirect objects confusing? I'm not a
linguistics expert. I suspect that our definition of a direct object (see
above) is a part of the problem. For sentences with more than just a noun
and a verb, I think (I could be wrong) that there should be a direct object.
After all, if an action is committed, it has to be received by something,
right? (I could be wrong.)
There are quite a few sentences we use that you could
argue the direct object is implicit.
"I told him." (the direct object might be 'the story',
'the truth', 'the tale', etc.)
"I asked her."
So far, it appears to me that indirect objects are used
for transferring objects and information. Now, just to be sure, we're going
to look at examples. To contrast direct and indirect objects, we need a
female person, so that we'll have a distinct difference:
Lestat made his mother, Gabrielle, into a vampire the night
she was dying (she's feeling much better now...)
'la' for direct object
'le' for indirect object
"¿Oyes eso?" Le pregunté.
"Do you hear that?" I asked her. (Lestat asks Gabrielle.)
Y allí la sostuve entre mis brazos y le
hablé mientras sucedía.
The book used dashes instead of quote marks but my html
translater can't handle that so I will default to quotes. Sorry for the
And there her I held up between my arms and to her I
spoke (sentences) while it happened.
Se deslizó entre mis brazos y la conduje lejos
de su victima.
The word 'sentences' was inserted into the English version
because it is thought to be the implicit direct object.
She slipped into my arms and I guided her away from her
"Por esta noche, es suficiente. Tenemos que regresar a la
torre" le dije.
"For tonight, it is enough. We should return to the tower,"
I told her.
Deseaba enseñarle el tesoro.
I wanted to show the treasure to her.
Le hablé con detalle de la torre.
I told her all about the tower.
De nuevo, los espasmos agónicos la asaltaban.
The death spasms assaulted her again.
"Tengo que beber", le expliqué.
I have to drink," I told her.
Le acerque mis labios de nuevo y no me rechazó.
I went to kiss her again, and she didn't stop me.
"Guarda silencio," le susurré. Noté
cómo la dominaba el pánico.
Acercar- to bring closer, nearer (I brought my lips to
"Keep still", I whispered (a warning) to her. I noted
how the panic dominated her.
La inocencia de las víctimas no le preocupaba
(They were sleeping under the alter in the church and
when they woke there was a night time church service going on. Gabrielle
was uncomfortable with the situation.)
The innocence of the victims didn't bother her at all.
COMMANDS (these words also referred
to as 'imperatives')
Perhaps it is possible to have a sentence that lacks
a direct object, but has includes an indirect object. I can't explain this
Three parts to this explanation
We talk about the different types of commands--who you
are giving it to is important
IRREGULAR TU COMMANDS
We show the conjugations
We point out the tricks.
It helps to have all three forms (-ar, -er, -ir)
in front of you as you see the rules
||ve (or) anda
DAYS OF THE WEEK
Reflexive verbs are used when you perform an action on yourself,
or someone performs an action on their self
A reflexive verb adds 'se' to the infinitive
'ducharse' is an -ar verb meaning 'to shower oneself'
I think the verb 'duchar' would mean you are washing someone
else in the shower
||to brush your teeth
||to wash oneself
||to get up out of bed
||to put on makeup
MONTHS OF THE YEAR
I was taught not to capitalize months or days of the week.
However, one of the native speakers who looked at the page asked me to
capitalize them. Recently, I received email from an instructor asking me
to change the first letters to lower case. My suggestion: by default assume
you are supposed to use lower case, but don't be surprised if somewhere
you find it done the other way. Perhaps there exist places where they capitalize
these words (this sentence written using the subjunctive :).